BACKGROUND: Vaccine acceptance and trust in vaccines pose a complex process affected by many factors. The present study was conducted to determine coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine acceptance, trust in vaccines, anxiety levels, and related factors in Turkish society. METHODS: The data of this cross-sectional and descriptive-correlational study were collected with the snowball method by using an online questionnaire throughout Turkey. The study was conducted between March 15 and April 3, 2021, with 3148 participants from 7 regions and 81 cities in Turkey. RESULTS: It was found that the participants accepted the vaccine at 72.8%, and the trust rate in the vaccine was 66.0%. It was also found that women, single participants, those who had immune system diseases, and with COVID-19 had higher Coronavirus Anxiety Scale scores at significant levels. According to Logistic Regression Analysis, gender, age, trust in the vaccine, perception of risk levels regarding COVID-19, and coronavirus anxiety levels are factors affecting the intentions of participants to accept/reject the vaccine. It was determined that male participants were more likely to accept the coronavirus vaccine (P = 0.028). It was found that health-care employees had higher trust in the coronavirus vaccine (P = 0.006) and acceptance rates (P = 0.010) at significant levels compared with the general population. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate in Turkish society was found to be high, and the level of trust in vaccines and anxiety levels were above the moderate level.