3D virtual learning environments in education: a meta-review

Reisoglu İ., Topu B., YILMAZ R. M., Yilmaz T. K., Goktas Y.

ASIA PACIFIC EDUCATION REVIEW, vol.18, no.1, pp.81-100, 2017 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 18 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12564-016-9467-0
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.81-100
  • Keywords: 3D virtual learning environment, Virtual worlds, 3D virtual environment, Comparative analysis, 2ND LIFE, PRESERVICE TEACHERS, SOCIAL PRESENCE, SELF-EFFICACY, REAL-WORLD, UNIVERSITY-STUDENTS, DISTANCE EDUCATION, SCHOOL-STUDENTS, USER BEHAVIOR, ROLE-PLAY
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study is to investigate recent empirical research studies about 3D virtual learning environments. A total of 167 empirical studies that involve the use of 3D virtual worlds in education were examined by meta-review. Our findings show that the "Second Life" platform has been frequently used in studies. Among the reviewed papers, case study designs and quasi-experimental studies were more common. Sample sizes were below 100 for most studies. 3D virtual learning environments are mainly designed for learning support, simulation, and game. Language learning and science have been the most extensively studied topics. Collaborative and exploration-based learning strategies have been used most frequently in 3D virtual learning environments. Presence, satisfaction, communication skills, and engagement were examined as emotional and cognitive achievements.