The composition and metabolic properties of cultivable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, the levels of indicator bacteria, and physicochemical parameters were investigated in the seawater samples collected from 20 stations in coastal areas of the eastern part of the Black Sea, Turkey, between May 2017 and February 2018. The levels of indicator bacteria were detected above the national limit values during the study period. Thirty-five different bacterium species were identified. Enterobacteriaceae was recorded as the most dominant family (34.2%), and Gammaproteobacteria was recorded as the most dominant class (74.2%). Bacteriological threats on human and ecosystem health were determined in coastal areas of the Southeastern Black Sea. The determination of the high levels of indicator bacteria, the high ratio of fecal coliform/fecal streptococci (FC/FS ratio), and pathogenic bacteria regarding human and ecosystem health showed that these coastal areas under the influences of terrestrial and human-sourced bacteriological pollution. This study has contributed to the increase of knowledge of understanding the protection and rehabilitation ways of the Black Sea coastal regions against land-based pollution sources considering the interdependent structure of all Black Sea countries. Coastal areas are accepted as the most fragile part of the marine environments and our findings showed the potential bacteriological risks in coastal areas of the Southeastern Black Sea as an important example. Serious precautions should be taken for the protection in this area and such coastal ecosystems to prevent hazardous problems.