In the present study, chromosome morphology of 32 Scorzonera L. taxa, including 19 species endemic to Turkey, was analyzed. The plant materials were collected from different natural populations of Turkey between 2005 and 2011. The classification of chromosomes, the length of the long and short arm, haploid chromosome length, arm ratio, and relative chromosomal length were measured by software image analyses. The basic chromosome numbers were determined as x = 6 and x = 7. Two types of ploidy levels were observed as diploidy and tetraploidy. Karyotype asymmetry indices, TF%, As K%, Syi, Rec, A, A1, and A2 were also calculated. Scorzonera ahmet-duranii S. Makbul & Coskuncelebi, S. laciniata subsp. calcitrapifolia (Vahl) Marie, and Scorzonera suberosa C. Koch subsp. cariensis (Boiss.) Chamberlain had the most symmetrical karyotypes for the subgenera Scorzonera L., Podospermum (L.) DC., and Pseudopodospermum (Lipsch. & Krasch.) Lipsch., respectively.