Aim: MRI-based sleep studies have revealed that airway movement disorders are associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). High-quality airway images are crucial for the accurate interpretation and planning of airway obstruction treatments. Our aim is to compare soft palate and uvula volumes, measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with mild and severe OSAS with those of normal individuals, and to examine the association between soft palate-uvula volume and OSAS. Material and Method: Retrospective evaluations were performed on MRI tests of 30 patients with mild OSAS and 30 patients with severe OSAS, all diagnosed using polysomnography and for whom cranial MRI was requested for various reasons. In addition, test subjects also included 30 individuals with no snoring symptoms who also underwent MRI tests. Soft palate and uvula volumes were measured on T2 sagittal images at cranial MRI using the Multiplanar Reformat (MPR) Roy free measurement technique. Results: The mean soft palate-uvula volumes of patients with mild and severe OSAS were 8.49 +/- 2.37 cm(3) and 11.29 +/- 4.22 cm(3), respectively, compared to 6.42 +/- 2.23 cm(3) for controls. Significant differences were determined in terms of soft palate and uvula volumes between the patients with mild and severe OSAS, as well as between the OSAS groups and the normal subjects (p< 0.05). Discussion: The significantly higher soft palate-uvula volume in patients with OSAS suggests that soft palate-uvula volume may play a role in the development of OSAS.