ULUSLARARASI BİLGİSAYAR TEKNOLOJİLERİ SEMPOZYUMU, Rize, Turkey, 16 - 18 May 2016, pp.1031-1038
Review Of Studies Related To Integrative Stem Approache ABSTRACT Today, the economy of the world increasingly takes a structure based on knowledge, and countries continuously renew and increase their capacity to create innovation and technology in order to survive and obtain advantages in the global economy. Turkey is also investing rapidly in industry and technology to increase competitiveness in this global race. The success of countries in this area depends on a large number of qualified and well-trained personnel in Natural Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, the STEM areas. As a result, we have to increase the number of successful students trained in the STEM areas not to lag behind in this race. However, international and national assessments indicate that Turkish students have a lower level of performance in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields and their interest in those areas is decreasing and they do not prefer these areas much for their future career (Marulcu and Sungur, 2012; Marulcu and Hobek, 2014, Url-1; Url-2). When the results of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) status determination are analysed, Turkey was on the 33rd rank with the overall score among 38 countries when it first participated in 1999, then in 2009, it became the 42nd out of 55 countries, and lastly in 2015, Turkey was even below Greece on the 41st rank, which was facing with many crisis, among 76 countries (Url-3). Thus, Turkey cannot be said to be successful in TIMSS exam. Due to the significant relationship between attitude and academic achievement, we tried to find out at what extent this fact reflects on students’ career choice. In a study carried out by Istanbul Aydın University (2014), distribution of the first 1000 students entering numerical fields between the years 2000 and 2014 was investigated by percentage of placement in STEM fields at university entrance exams. In 2000, the rate of placement in STEM fields was 85%, but it decreased to 27% in 2010, then increased to 38% back in 2014. Across all numerical fields in 2014, 81.39 % of the students who were placed in STEM fields were males, while the rate of females was only 18.61%. The failure of the students in STEM fields and the shortage of selecting the STEM professions reflect on economy. The research carried out by TUSIAD (Turkish Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association) (2014) shows that only 19% of the labor force in STEM fields in Turkey (manufacturing and network industries, retail and 16-18 May 2016 Rize, Turkey 10th International Computer and Instructional Technologies Symposium (ICITS) 1032 service sector) are comprised of individuals graduating from STEM fields (% 64 are males and 34% are females). In addition, according to the report, Turkey will face a crisis in STEM fields in the future, the labour demand in STEM areas will increase even more than in previous years within next 10 years. This study aims at revealing what areas of STEM, an interdisciplinary education approach, have been studied and the general trends in the field in our country. This study has a qualitative natüre and employs descriptive content analysis. In the study, studies found searching Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), ASOS INDEX ve Yüksek Öğretim Kurumu [YÖK] dissertation data base were analyzed. The subjects, research approaches, methods, data collection tools, sample, STEM components, and general findings of the studies published in Turkey were investigated. Based on the research it is found that studies were mostly conducted with middle school students, tests (achievement test, scientific process skills test, subject and achievement test) were used as data collection tools, and interviews and questionnaires were used. It is found that mostly 8th grade students were preferred as the subjects. Examining the STEM subjects studied, studies that holitically approach science and engineering components were not found; it is found that technology and mathematics components had shortcomings. It is hoped that finding gaps in this field would have a guiding role for researchers who do work in this field.
ÖZET Bu çalışmada, disiplinler arası eğitim yaklaşımlarından biri olan STEM yaklaşımının ülkemizde hangi noktalarının çalışıldığını ve genel eğilimlerin neler olduğunu ortaya çıkarmak amaçlanmıştır. Betimsel içerik analiz yönteminin kullanıldığı bu çalışma, nitel bir doğaya sahiptir. Çalışmada; ülkemizde yayınlanan eğitim dergileri, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), ASOS INDEX ve Yüksek Öğretim Kurumu [YÖK] tez veri tabanı taranarak elde edilen çalışmalar analiz edilmiştir. Türkiye’de yayınlanan bu çalışmaların konuları, araştırma yaklaşımları, kullanılan yöntem, veri toplama araçları, çalışma örneklemi, çalışılan STEM Bileşenleri ve genel sonuçları incelenmiştir. Yapılan incelemeler sunucunda genellikle ortaokul öğrencileri ile çalışıldığı, veri toplama aracı olarak sıklıkla testlerin (başarı testleri, BSB Testleri, Hazırbulunuşluk testleri, konu ve başarı testleri), mülakatların ve anketlerin kullanıldığı görülmektedir. Örneklemde yer alan ortaokul öğrenci grupları incelendiğinde 8. Sınıf öğrencilerinin fazlaca tercih edildiği de görülmektedir. Çalışılan STEM Bileşenlerine bakıldığında ise yoğun olarak Fen ve Mühendislik bileşenlerinin çalışıldığı görülürken bütünsel olarak ele alınan çalışmalara rastlanılmamış olup teknoloji ve matematik bileşenlerinin eksikliklerinin olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Alan yazındaki eksikliklerin belirlenmesinin bu alanda çalışan araştırmacılar için aydınlatıcı bir rol üsteleneceği umulmaktadır. Anahtar Sözcükler: Disiplinler Arası Eğitimi, STEM Yaklaşımı