The protective effects of Panax ginseng (PG) on gentamicin sulphate (GS) induced nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. A total of 32 adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups and treated by intraperitoneous route for 10 days with: 0.5 mL of isotonic saline (group Q, GS 100 mg / kg / day (group GS), PG 200 mg / kg / day (group PG) and GS (100 mg / kg / day) plus PG (200 mg / kg / day) (group PG + GS). After the last injection, plasma urea and creatinine concentrations and kidney MDA (malondialdehyde), NO (nitric oxide) and GSH (glutathione) concentrations as well as tissue GPX (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activities were measured by spectrophotometry. In parallel, kidney injury was histopathologically evaluated. Marked elevations of plasma urea and creatinine concentrations and severe tubular necroses in all rats (except one) confirmed the GS toxicity. Besides, treatment with GS alone induced significant increases of tissue oxidant (MDA and NO) concentrations associated to inipairement of antioxidant systems (decreases of GSH concentrations and of GPX and SOD activities). By contrast, co treatment with PG significantly alleviated the GS-induced oxidative stress (decreases of MDA and NO contents and heavy restoration of antioxidants) and has partially protected rats from nephrotoxicity (reduction of kidney damage and of plasma urea and creatinine concentrations). These results indicate that the nephroprotective effects of Panax ginseng against GS-induced oxidative damage may be due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.