Natural radioactivity in ceramic tiles and associated radiological hazards

Dizman S., KESER R.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION RESEARCH, vol.17, no.2, pp.245-252, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.18869/acadpub.ijrr.17.2.245
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.245-252
  • Keywords: Ceramic tile, natural radioactivity, radiological hazard, Turkey, BUILDING-MATERIALS, RADIATION HAZARDS, RAW-MATERIALS
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Background: The natural radioactivity levels in ceramic tiles produced in Turkey were determined and the related radiological hazards were assessed. Materials and Methods: The natural radioactivity levels (Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40) in the ceramic tiles were measured using high-purity germanium detector system (HPGe) and the related radiological hazards were assessed by radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), representative level index (l gamma), absorbed dose rate (D) and annual effective dose (AED). Results: The average activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides in the ceramic tiles were found to be 36.59 +/- 2.64, 51.23 +/- 2.81 and 420.81 +/- 12.87 Bq/kg, respectively. These values are less than the world average values except the activity values of 232Th. Again, the averages of radiological hazard parameters (Raeq, Hex, D and AED) found for all ceramic tiles were found lower than the world averages. Conclusion: The present results was compared with the literature and the international reference values. This study shows that the investigated ceramic tiles can be used safely in constructions and do not create significant radiological hazard when used in constructions.