Investigation of Integrons, su/1-2 and dfr Genes in Trimethoprim-Sulfametoxazole-Resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples

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Ozkaya E., AYDİN F., BAYRAMOĞLU G., BURUK C. K., Sandalli C.

MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.48, no.2, pp.201-212, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.7262
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.201-212
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: No


Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, which is a non-fermentative gram-negative bacillus, has an increasing importance in nosocomial and opportunistic infections. Since it exhibits resistance to numerous broad-spectrum antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and tetracyclines, it may considerably limit empirical treatment options. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) is recommended as the first-line therapy in the treatment of S.maltophilia infections thanks to its high potency and usefulness in a range of patients. In recent years, however, studies in different geographical regions have started to report resistance to SXT. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genes sul1, sul2, dfrA9, dfrA10, dfrA20 and class 1, class II integron gene cassettes which are known to play role in SXT resistance among SXT-resistant S.maltophilia strains. A total of 618 S.maltophilia strains isolated from various clinical samples of 339 patients between January 2006 and October 2011 at the laboratory of Medical Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by both conventional methods and the Phoenix automated identification system (Becton Dickinson, USA). SXT resistance was determined in the isolates of 32 patients (32/339, 9.4%) by both the automated system and agar dilution method of them 29 (90.6%) were hospital-acquired, and 3 (9.4%) were community-acquired. The genes which are known as SXT resistance determining genes including sul1, sul2, dfr genes, and class 1 and class II integron gene cassettes were analyzed by using specific primers with polymerase chain reaction in the 32 SXT-resistant isolates. Subsequently, nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified materials was performed. As a result of this assay, the presence of class I integron gene cassette and sull gene were detected in one isolate. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene cassette revealed oxacilinase (oxa2) type of beta-lactamase, an aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase [aac(6')-IIc], leading to resistance of aminoglycosides, and a quaternary ammonium compounds resistance gene (qacF), respectively. In conclusion, to best of our knowledge the sequences of class I integron gene cassette including oxa2, aac(6')-IIc, qacF genes were identified in S.maltophilia for the first time. It should be kept in mind that the co-presence of a class 1 integron gene cassette and the su/1 gene in S.maltophilia may lead to the development of multi-drug resistance and may act as a potential source for the dissemination of resistance.