Xyloglucan is an important hemicellulosic polysaccharide in dicot primary cell walls. Most of the enzymes involved in xyloglucan synthesis have been identified. However, many important details of its synthesis in vivo remain unknown. The roles of three genes encoding xylosyltransferases participating in xyloglucan biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were further investigated using reverse genetic, biochemical, and immunological approaches. New double mutants (xxt1 xxt5 and xxt2 xxt5) and a triple mutant (xxt1 xxt2 xxt5) were generated, characterized, and compared with three single mutants and the xxt1 xxt2 double mutant that had been isolated previously. Antibody-based glycome profiling was applied in combination with chemical and immunohistochemical analyses for these characterizations. From the combined data, we conclude that XXT1 and XXT2 are responsible for the bulk of the xylosylation of the glucan backbone, and at least one of these proteins must be present and active for xyloglucan to be made. XXT5 plays a significant but as yet uncharacterized role in this process. The glycome profiling data demonstrate that the lack of detectable xyloglucan does not cause significant compensatory changes in other polysaccharides, although changes in nonxyloglucan polysaccharide amounts cannot be ruled out. Structural rearrangements of the polysaccharide network appear responsible for maintaining wall integrity in the absence of xyloglucan, thereby allowing nearly normal plant growth in plants lacking xyloglucan. Finally, results from immunohistochemical studies, combined with known information about expression patterns of the three genes, suggest that different combinations of xylosyltransferases contribute differently to xyloglucan biosynthesis in the various cell types found in stems, roots, and hypocotyls.