The volatile constituents of the essential oils from the flower, leaf, and stem of Paeonia daurica Andrews were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 74 compounds were identified, constituting over 95.0%, 80.8%, and 98.2% of the oil composition of the flower, leaf, and stem of P. daurica, respectively. Aldehydes were shown to be the main group of constituents of the flower and stem parts, at 39.1% and 79.8%, respectively. However, the major group in the leaf oil was found to be oxygenated monoterpenes (43.5%). Salicylaldehyde (20.7% and 79.5%) was the major component of the flower and stem oils of P. daurica, respectively. Linalool (31.4%) was the main compound of the leaf oil. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils of the plant was also investigated, and they showed moderate antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms.