The protective effects of Panax ginseng (PG) on gentamicin sulphate (GS) induced acute nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. A total of 32 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups and treated by intraperitoneous route for 10 days with: 0.5 mL of isotonic saline (group C), GS 100 mg/kg/day (group GS), co treatment PG (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) plus GS (100 mg/kg/day). After the last injection, kidney markers (urea, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen-BUN) and hepatic markers (aspartate aminotransferase-AST, alanine aminotransferase-ALT, gama glutamil transferase-GGT), and biochemical parameters were analyzed using diagnostic kits. Also, kidney changes were evaluated by immunohistochemical and stereological methods. GS treatment induced significant elevation (P < 0.05) in kidney and hepatic markers, most of biochemical parameters, and Bax immunoreactivity as well. However, co treatments with both doses of PG (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated (P < 0.05) the GS-induced elevations and have partially protected rats from nephrotoxicity (reduction of kidney damage, and of urea, creatinine and BUN concentrations, and of apoptotic index). Both biochemical results and immunohistochemical evidence showed that administration of PG reduced the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.