Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Virus Infection: A Review of the Literature.

Kayhan S., Çınarka H., Gümüş A., Şahin Ü.

Advances in Bioscience & Clinical Medicine, vol.2, no.1, pp.2-11, 2014 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Journal Name: Advances in Bioscience & Clinical Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Other Indexes
  • Page Numbers: pp.2-11
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. On 18 March 2009, A novel swine origin
influenza A (H1N1) virus was seen in Mexico, then a global outbreak of respiratory illness started. The new H1N1 virus
usually attaches to tracheobronchial epithelial cells and the clinical picture ranges from transient lower respiratory tract
infections to severe pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The main complication is extension of
viral infection to the alveoli that causes primary viral pneumonia. The most common radiologic findings are unilateral
or bilateral ground-glass opacities and multifocal areas of consolidations Bacterial coinfections, particularly
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, increase the severity of illness. Patients with underlying
cardiopulmonary comorbid conditions, pregnancy and obesity appear to be at higher risk of severe pneumonia. The
severe cases have required admission to intensive care units and needs to mechanical ventilation. H1N1 influenza virus
is now in post-pandemic period; however, localized outbreaks of various magnitudes are being reported.
Keywords: H1N1; influenza; pandemic; pneumonia