Tritium concentrations and consequent doses in bottled natural and mineral waters sold in Turkey and Azerbaijan

DİZMAN S., Mukhtarli O.

CHEMOSPHERE, vol.267, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 267
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128721
  • Journal Name: CHEMOSPHERE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Radioactivity, Tritium, Drinking water, Mineral water, Turkey, Azerbaijan, DRINKING-WATER, PRECIPITATION
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, tritium levels in commercially sold bottled natural and mineral waters in Turkey and Azerbaijan were determined. Tritium measurements were performed using Liquid Scintillation Counter (PerkinElmer TriCarb 2910 TR). 16 natural and 11 mineral samples from Turkey and 7 natural and 8 mineral samples from Azerbaijan, for a total of 42 commercially sold water samples were analyzed. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) value for the method used was found as 1.69 Bq L-1. In total, 7 of the natural water samples and 8 of the mineral water samples were found to be below the MDA value. The average activity concentrations in natural and mineral water samples were found as 2.23 +/- 0.90 Bq L-1 and 2.51 +/- 0.90 Bq L-1 for Turkey and 2.69 +/- 0.91 Bq L-1 and 2.43 +/- 0.89 Bq L-1 for Azerbaijan, respectively. In addition, annual effective dose rates and lifetime cancer risk values for the water samples were calculated. These radiological parameters were compared with the values recommended by international organizations. The results demonstrated that consumption by humans of the studied waters would not constitute any health risks in terms of tritium. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.