Objectives To investigate the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards pediatric dental radiography and its associated factors among Turkish parents seeking dental care for their children. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 483 parents of children aged 6-15 years. Data were collected using the questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes based on The Health Belief Model and planned behavior theory. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistics were performed. Results More than half of parents had correct knowledge on their rights to access health information, the radiation risk and exposure from dental X-rays, children's vulnerability to radiation, and using lead apron. Most parents (70.4%) perceived dental X-rays as valuable. They had limited knowledge regarding the permanent damage and negative attitudes regarding its safety and goodness. There were positive correlations between knowledge-attitudes, knowledge-perceived benefits, and attitudes-perceived benefits (all p values < 0.01). Having a previous dental X-ray (p = 0.014) and not having parents' information needs (p = 0.007) were associated with higher attitudes. Increasing education levels, having a educational need and higher perceived benefit were found to be predictors of higher parental knowledge. Conclusion Turkish parents had some knowledge and positive attitudes towards pediatric dental X-rays but not at optimum levels. Parents' education levels, information needs, and beliefs were the most important factors affecting parental knowledge. Attitudes towards radiation safety and goodness should be improved.