Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are thought to affect reproductive health by causing adverse effects on sperm morphology and ovum quality as a result of changing membrane lipid composition which, in turn, leads to impairment in metabolic pathways. This literature review examines the evidence for the effects of dietary TFAs on male and female infertility. Studies conducted between 2007 and 2017 on the effect of dietary TFAs on human reproductive health and fetal life have been included. They indicate that TFA intakes are inversely proportional to sperm concentration and total sperm count and exhibit a positive correlation with asthenospermia, as well as an adverse association on sperm concentration and semen quality. In the female TFAs intakes are associated with an increase in the risk of ovulatory infertility, adversely affect the length of gestation leading to fetal developmental defects and fetal loss. The findings suggest that high TFA intake (more than 1% of energy consumption) constitute a risk factor for infertility in both sexes.