Cement production has been one of the most energy intensive industries in the world. In order to produce raw materials preparation, clinker and rotary kilns are widely used in cement plants. The objective of this study is to perform energy and exergy analysis of a raw mill (RM) and raw materials preparation unit in a cement plant in Turkey using the actual operational data. The RM has a capacity of 82.9 ton-material hourly. Both energy and exergy efficiencies of the RM are investigated for the plant performance analysis and improvement, and are determined to be 84.3% and 25.2%, respectively. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in the analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.