Objective: To determine whether the gonial angle on digital panoramic radiographs is associated with vitamin D receptor (VDR) Taql polymorphism. Methods: Genomic DNA samples were collected from the buccal mucosa of patients aged 26–43 years. TaqMan assay for single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping was used to detect the genotype of Taql polymorphism. The gonial angle was measured bilaterally on panoramic radiography. The normal gonial angle was fixed as 121.8°, and it represented the cutoff value for the high gonial angle (HGA) and low gonial angle (LGA) groups. Various genetic models were analyzed, namely dominant (homozygous [AA] vs. heterozygous [AG] + polymorphic [GG]), recessive (AA + AG vs. GG), and additive (AA + GG vs. AG), using the chi-squared test. Results: The reliability of the gonial angle measurement was analyzed using a random sample (26%) of the tests, with the intra-examiner correlation showing an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99. The frequencies of the AA, AG, and GG genotypes of rs731236 polymorphism were 40.5%, 41.9%, and 17.6% in the HGA group and 21.8%, 51.0%, and 27.2% in the LGA group, respectively (P = 0.042). A statistically significant difference was observed in the allele frequencies between the two groups (P = 0.011). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed in the dominant genetic model. Conclusions: Taql polymorphism in the VDR gene plays a critical role in the vertical growth of the mandible and decreased gonial angle.