Purpose: Symptoms and disorders related to menopause and its associated estrogen deficiency have become a considerable health concern worldwide. Ovarian hormone depletion/estrogen deficiency can be usefully studied using animal models after removal of the ovaries [ovariectomy (Ovx)]. This study assessed renal changes after Ovx-induced estrogen deficiency in a rat model.Methods: Rats were randomly allotted into one control group (group I, healthy) and three study groups (group II, Ovx group; group III, Ovx +17-estradiol group; and group IV, Ovx+bortezomib group).Results: In the Ovx group (group II), thickening of glomerular capillary walls, narrowing of Bowman's capsular space, glomerular hypertrophy, atrophic tubules, and loss of the basal membranes of the tubules were observed. Mesangial cell proliferation was observed, particularly in the glomerulus. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining studies in this group showed dense staining in the mesangial cells, tubular cell Nf-KB/p65, and caspase-3. Groups III and IV (Ovx +17-estradiol and Ovx+bortezomib) showed decreased NF-kB/p65 and caspase-3 expression compared with the Ovx group (p<0.05).Conclusion: In renal failure related to estrogen deficiency caused by Ovx, 17-estradiol and bortezomib have a protective effect on renal tissue.