In this work, the essential Oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Neckera complanata (Hedw.) Huebener and Neckera crispa Hedw I (Neckeraceae) were analyzed by GC-FIDTID and GC-MS. Twenty-one compounds in the oil of N. complanata, representing 71.61 % and 1 forty-two compounds in the Oil of N. crispa, representing 82.12 %, were identified. The essential oil of N. crispa was rich in terpenes (58.68 %) with beta-phellandrene (20.00 %), cataphene (10.36 %), gamma-bisabolene-E (5.51 %) and alpha-pinene (3.49 %) as the major components, respectively. 3-Octanone (22.26 :%) and limonene (2.97 %) were the major constituents of the essential oil of N. complanata. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated: essential oils of the mosses Were also investigated. The essential oil of N. complanata showed Only moderate antibacterial-activities against. Staphylococcus aureus,.Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus with 576 mu g/ml, (each): But all the oils showed good antimycotic activity against Candida,albicans with in the range of 573-5761. mu g/mL, respectively. The aim of this work was to characterize the variation in the essential oil: composition of N. complanata and N. crispa grown in Turkey and to identify environmental factors associated With differences in essential oil composition as well as to,evaluate their antimicrobial activity.