A comprehensive taxonomic study based on comparative morphology of Scorzonera, here maintained in its wide sense, is presented for the territory of Turkey. This study has produced several changes of classification at sectional and species ranks. An updated list of Scorzonera taxa occurring in Turkey, along with their infrageneric classification, is provided. A new section, S. sect. Anatolia Makbul & Coskunc, is described. Chromosome numbers, threat categories, and distribution maps are given for 6 endemic taxa (S. boissieri, S. karabelensis, S. longiana, S. sandrasica, S. ulrichii, and S. zorkunensis) placed in or transferred to the newly described section. A revised identification key to all Scorzonera species in Turkey is presented.