Identification of heavy metal origins related to chemical and morphological soil properties using several non-destructive X-ray analytical methods

Akbulut S., Grieken R., KILIC M. A., ÇEVİK U., Rotondo G. G.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.185, no.3, pp.2377-2394, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 185 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-012-2718-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2377-2394
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Soils are complex mixtures of organic, inorganic materials, and metal compounds from anthropogenic sources. In order to identify the pollution sources, their magnitude and development, several X-ray analytical methods were applied in this study. The concentrations of 16 elements were determined in all the soil samples using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Soils of unknown origin were observed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a Si(Li) X-ray detector using Monte Carlo simulation approach. The mineralogical analyses were carried out using X-ray diffraction spectrometry. Due to the correlations between heavy metals and oxide compounds, the samples were analyzed also by electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) in order to have information about their oxide contents. On the other hand, soil pH and salinity levels were identified owing to their influence between heavy metal and soil-surface chemistry. Moreover, the geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) enables the assessment of contamination by comparing current and pre-industrial concentrations.