Volatile organic compositions of the essential oils (EOs), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and SPME of n-hexane extracts from the flower and stem-leaf of Filipendula vulgaris (F. vulgaris) were analyzed by GC-FID/MS. A total of 107 constituents were characterized, flower and stem leaf parts of the plant were found to contain different volatile organic compounds. Tricosane (29.6%), n-nonanal (20.5%) were identified as the main components in the essential oil of the flower, while phytol (35.2%) was found to be a major constituent in the essential oil of stem-leaf. Benzaldehyde (56.0%) and n-nonanal (31.6%) were the major groups in the SPME of stem-leaf and flower, respectively. The volatiles for the SPME of n-hexane extracts of the flower and stem leaf of F. vulgaris were predominated by aromatic compounds (75.0% and 78.5%) and ketones (18.1% and 10.1%), respectively. On the other hand, a total of terpene compounds was found at the most in the EO of the stem-leaf part of the plant (48.6%). In addition, antimicrobial, tyrosinase inhibition, and nitric oxide scavenging activities of the n-hexane (H), methanol (M), aqueous extracts (A) and EOs of F. vulgaris were investigated. EOs and methanol extracts of flower and stem-leaf had high antimicrobial activity against tested various microorganisms. However, n-hexane extracts of the flower and stem-leaf only displayed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Methanol extracts of flower and stem-leaf possessed the best tyrosine inhibition and NO scavenging activity.