Resynthesized (RS) rapeseed generated from interspecific hybridization between suitable forms of Brassica rapa L. (syn. campestris; genome AA, 2n = 20) and B. oleracea L. (CC, 2n = 18) represents a potentially important resource to expand genetic diversity in the narrow gene pool of oilseed rape (B. napus L., AACC, 2n = 38). In this study 165 RS rapeseed lines originating from crosses between an Indian Yellow Sarson (B. rapa ssp. trilocularis) and five different cauliflower (B. oleracea convar. botrytis) cultivars were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and their genetic diversity was compared in relationship to an assortment of 40 diverse spring oilseed and fodder rape varieties. Using three AFLP primer combinations, a total of 467 polymorphic bands were scored. Cluster analysis allowed differentiation among the different RS lines, which, as expected, were genetically highly divergent from the cultivars. The genetic diversity of the material is discussed in relation to its morphological variability with a view to the implementation of RS lines in oilseed rape breeding.