1703 and 1704 Georgia-Abkhaz Crusade and the Cost of the Crusade 1703-1704 Gürcistan-Abaza Seferi ve Seferin Maliyeti

Eyüp K.

Turkiyat Mecmuasi, no.33, pp.495-533, 2023 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.26650/iuturkiyat.1310503
  • Journal Name: Turkiyat Mecmuasi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.495-533
  • Keywords: Abkhazia, Georgia, Military history, Ottoman Empire, Russia, war
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Georgia is a place of steep mountains and deep valleys, which led to frequent flooding. The effect of this natural structure was the main factor in armies facing serious difficulties during expeditions to the region. Ottoman–Georgian relations, which started in the fifteenth century, were also strategically effective in pursuing a policy based on local feudal lords against Iran, rather than conquering the region directly. The geography of Georgia, which became the field of Ottoman–Safavid rivalry in time, was shared between the two states. After the Treaty of Karlowitz, going on an expedition became a recurrent issue to prevent the increasing rebel movements against the Ottoman Empire and to strengthen the Ottoman authority in the region. Indeed, the expedition in which soldiers from Erzurum, Trabzon, Çıldır/Akhaltsikhe, and Kars provinces and 1,350 members of the central army took charge under the command of Vizier Köse Halil Pasha started in 1703 and ended in the following year. In this study, the route of the expedition, the events on the expedition route, when the expedition started and when it ended, whether the expedition reached its goal, whether the Ottoman army remained in the region, what kind of measures were taken in the region at the end of the expedition, whether the old order was maintained in the region, and the cost of the expedition to the Ottoman treasury are emphasized, and the information found in the Ottoman and Georgian sources are analyzed comparatively.