An assessment of heavy metal level in infant formula on the market in Turkey and the hazard index


JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS, vol.105, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 105
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jfca.2021.104258
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Analytical Abstracts, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Infant formula, ICP-MS, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Mercury, Dietary exposure, THQ, Hazard index, TOXIC METALS, ARSENIC CONTENTS, RISK-ASSESSMENT, TRACE-ELEMENTS, RICE, MILK, CADMIUM, FOODS, EXPOSURE, MERCURY
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Heavy metals are compounds which exist in many food products that we consume daily, and they show a toxic effect in certain concentrations. In this study, firstly, lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury levels in 36 samples of infant formula were determined with ICP-MS. Then, infant formula consumption data of 268 babies within the age range of 0-24 months were acquired with 24 h dietary recall method. Lastly, the estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) were calculated. Average Pb, Cd, As and Hg levels of infant formula were determined to be 0.025, 0.002, 0.021 and 0.0001 mg/kg, respectively. Average exposures of As, Cd, Hg and Pb for all age groups were calculated as 0.29, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.04 mu g/kg bw/day, respectively. According to the HI values, the findings indicate potential health concerns for babies within the age range of 0-6 months.