Mu‘tezile-Şîa Etkileşimi Bağlamında Zemahşerî’nin Hz. Ali Hakkında Nazil Olduğu Nakledilen Âyetlere Yaklaşımı

Çelik E.

Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi, vol.25, no.3, pp.1123-1142, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 25 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.18505/cuid.980770
  • Journal Name: Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1123-1142
  • Keywords: Tafsir, Interaction, Mu'tazila, Shi'a, Ahl al-Bayt, 'Ali b. Abi Talib, Al-Zamakhshari, Al-Kashshaf
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Mu'tazila and Shi'a (Zaydiyya-Imamiyya) have common views on many theological issues except the imamate. This issue has been generally accepted by other Islamic scholars rather than Shi'a and by Western researchers. That in this interaction between the Mu'tazila and the Shi'a, the Shi'a is the side mostly affected. However, it is an issue that should not be overlooked that the Shi'a partially influenced the Mu'tazila in 'Ali b. Abi Talib, over the other Companions. In this context, some persons from the Baghdad Mu'tazila School such as Bishr b. al-Mu'tamir (d. 210/825), Ja'far b. Mubashir (d. 234/848), Ja'far b. Harb (d. 236/850) and al-Iskafi (d. 240/854) argued that the imamate of Abh Bakr, who was less virtuous, was permissible although they considered 'Ali as the most virtuous person after the Prophet. In addition, al-'Allaf (d. 235/849-850), al-Nazzam (d. 231/845), Abh Abdullah al-Basri (d. 369/97980) and Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar (d. 415/1025) along with Abh 'Ali al-Jubbal (d. 303/916), one of the chiefs of the Basra Mu'tazila School, and Abh Hashim al-Jubbal (d. 321/933) did not accept the order of caliphate as the order of virtue. This study focuses on the issue of whether the aforementioned affinity between Mu'tazila and Shi'a affected Mu'tazila, especially in the interpretation of the verses associated with 'Ali. In the study, the aforementioned problem was examined through the tafsir al-Kashshff of the Mu'tazili mufassir al-Zamakhshari (d. 538/1144). In addition to the importance of tafsir, the fact that al-Zamakhshari took lessons from Shiite/Zaydi persons and he wrote the tafsirwith the support of Zaydi leader al-Wahhas (d. 506/1112) is effective in handling this issue through al-Kashshils tafsir. In the first part of the study, first of all, the interaction between Imamiyya and Zaydism, which are the two most important branches of Mu'tazila and Shi'a, is briefly mentioned. Then, Mu'tazila's and Al-Zamakhshari's view on 'Ali's position among other caliphs is emphasized. Al-Zamakhshari, who is from the Basra school of the Mu'tazila, does not consider 'Ali b. Abi Talib superior to Abh Bakr, unlike al-'Allaf, Abh 'Ali al-Jubbal, Abh Hashim al-Jubbal and Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, who are the leading figures of this school. In fact, the fact that he always observed the order of the caliphate while talking about the merits of the four caliphs supports the possibility that, unlike his predecessors, he accepted the order of the caliphate as the order of virtue. In the second part, it is questioned whether the narrations that al-Zamakhshari included in his tafsir of the verses associated with 'Ali are similar to the narrations of the Shiite/Zaydi/Imami tradition and whether he interpreted the verses in parallel with these narrations. In this respect, the tafsfral-Kashsh.Vhas been examined comparatively with the Sunni and Shiite tafsirs prior to it. Eventually, while interpreting these verses associated with the Ahl abbayt(members of the Prophet's household), al-Zamakhshari highlights the narrations that appreciate the virtues of 'Ali b. Abi Talib and his child. However, he also refrains from making comments that would be in line with the Shr a's belief in imamate. In particular, his tafsfrof the verse al-Ahzab 33/33 in the context of the Prophet's wives is the greatest indicator of this situation. It has been determined that while al-Zamakhshari includes the narrations highlighting the virtue of 'Ali b. Abi Talib and his children, he mostly follows the Sunni commentator al-Thalabi.