Silurian to Early Devonian arc magmatism in the western Sakarya Zone (NW Turkey), with inference to the closure of the Rheic Ocean


LITHOS, vol.370, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 370
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.lithos.2020.105641
  • Journal Name: LITHOS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Chemical Abstracts Core, Geobase, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


The Rheic Ocean is the most significant Paleozoic ocean that detached peri-Gondwana terranes from the northern Gondwana margin throughout the closure of the Iapetus Ocean. The suture of the Rheic Ocean spreads from Mexico to the Middle East, and the timing of its final closure is well-documented by the rocks formed in the Variscan-Alleghanian-Ouachita orogeny which led to the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea. However, as robust paleomagnetic and quantitative data are mostly lacking, the onset and evolution of the subduction of the Rheic Ocean are highly speculative, and they require further confirmation. Recently, the well-preserved metagranitoids along the western Sakarya Zone (SZ) in Anatolia have been identified, and they provide new data that improve our knowledge on the evolution of the Early Paleozoic Rheic Ocean along the northern Gondwana. Here, we present new geochronological, in situ zircon Hf isotope, and whole-rock geochemical analyses of these metagranitoids from the western SZ to enhance our understanding of the subduction processes of the Rheic Ocean. IA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating demonstrated that the Boziiyuk and Borcak metagranitoids from the western SZ were emplaced during the Silurian to Early Devonian (431 +/- 2.7 to 403 +/- 3.5 Ma). The both granitoids have medium- to high-K. calc-alkaline magmatic character, and exhibit peraluminous to slightly metaluminous geochemical signature. They show a typical arc pattern in terms of trace elements and have a uniform, moderate negative epsilon(Hf) (t) of -3.2 to -9.7, with Mesoproterozoic Hf depleted mantle model ages (T-DM1 = 12 to 1.4 Ga). The geochemical and isotopic characteristics are not consistent with those of depleted mantle melts and melts derived from the crustal rocks in an intracontinental environment. Instead, the parental magma is likely generated from the partial melting of a homogeneous and enriched mantle wedge source. We propose that the Silurian to Early Devonian arc-related magmatism is associated with a northward subduction episode of the Rheic Oceanic lithosphere beneath the peri-Gondwana terranes. Hence, we consider that the opening of Paleotethys Ocean formed in a back-arc basin of subduction in Andean style to the north rather than a continental rift to the south in response to south-directed and short-lived supra-subduction zone (SSZ)-type subduction during the Silurian to Early Devonian. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.