Macro- and micro-morphological features of seeds belonging to 26 taxa from Turkey were observed under the light and scanning electron microscopy. Present findings partly agree with segregation of Epilobium and Chamaenerion at generic level. The members of the genus Epilobium were distinguished by seeds with conical, semispherical, cylindrical or crest-like papillae or without papillae, granulate periclinal surfaces, papillae with parallel, radial, irregular or spirally furrow and the members of Chamaenerion were distinguished by seeds with crest-like papillae or without papillae and without granulate periclinal surfaces and without furrow. The results also showed that seed shape, presence/absence of papillae and beak, papillae shape and ornamentation, and periclinal wall features are valuable for delimiting the examined taxa on specific level within both genera. A key to Turkish Epilobium and Chamaenerion taxa based on seed morphology is presented for the first time.