This study investigates phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships of Vimba species using mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) (1023 bp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding region (652 bp) genes. Ninety-one samples from 36 populations for the cyt b gene and 67 samples from 20 populations for the COI were analyzed. We identified 29 haplotypes and calculated overall haplotype diversity as Hd: 0.907 +/- 0.015 for cyt b. We also identified 13 COI haplotypes and calculated overall haplotype diversity as 0.826 +/- 0.026 for this marker. The phylogenetic analysis of Vimba species reveals the presence of four clades, based on concatenated cyt b and COI sequences. The first and second clade consist of Vimba vimba Western lineage, and Vimba vimba Caspian lineage, while the third and fourth clade consist of Vimba mirabilis and Vimba melanops. Based on haplotype network analyses and phylogeographic inferences, the Vimba genus is monophyletic, and its species dispersed in the Pleistocene era.