Bacterial diseases, such as American Foulbrood (AFB) and European Foulbrood (EFB), are known to have catastrophic effects on honey bees (if left to spread, can wipe out entire colonies), leading to severe financial losses in the beekeeping industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological properties of methanol extract and its fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, water) derived from Dicranum scoparium Hedw., which could be utilized as a potential drug to prevent the bacterial diseases (AFB and EFB) affecting the honey bees. For this purpose, crude methanol extract and ethyl acetate/hexane/water fractions were prepared from the aerial part of D. scoparium, collected from Trabzon province. Bio-guided fractionation of the extract and its fractions led to the first-time isolation of five compounds. The structure of all compounds was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectral analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-QToF-MS), and by comparison of their NMR data with that of literature. The analysis of these compounds revealed significant antibacterial and sporicidal activities against bacteria causing larval diseases in honey bees. The antibacterial activity of these compounds ranged from 0.6 to 60 mu g/mL against AFB and EFB causing bacteria. Therefore, the natural raw extract and fractions of D. scoparium could be used as potential therapeutic agents against bacterial agents affecting honey bees.