Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) constitutes 80% of the primary liver tumors. According to the recent data, HCC is the sixth most common cancer type and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Risk factors for HCC development includes presence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, exposure to noxious agents such as alcohol, and toxins such as aflatoxin, which also considered as preventable etiologies in the development of HCC. On the other hand, surveillance strategies are needed for those patients at risk of developing HCC. There is a consensus in surveillance of cirrhotic patients due to definite evidence on significantly increased HCC development rate. However, the surveillance of patients with advanced fibrosis remains open to discussion. Nevertheless, adherence to a strict surveillance is the cornerstone of early detection and treatment with curative options for patients with a higher risk of HCC. In this review, we mainly discussed the prevention strategies in light of risk factors and HCC surveillance based on current guidelines.