Challenges and Future Perspectives on Production, Storage Technologies, and Transportation of Hydrogen: A Review

Omid M. A., ŞAHİN M. E., CORA Ö. N.

Energy Technology, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ente.202300997
  • Journal Name: Energy Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Applied Science & Technology Source, CAB Abstracts, Chimica, Compendex, Environment Index, Greenfile, INSPEC
  • Keywords: cost of hydrogen, energy transition, hydrogen energy, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, hydrogen transportation
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Hydrogen plays an essential role in the energy-transition process. Even though currently almost 80–96% of hydrogen is produced from fossil fuel sources in the world, the exciting feature of hydrogen is that it can be produced from renewable sources by splitting water molecules through electrolyzing, and then it can be re-electrified without any emissions by-products. Hydrogen is the secondary source of energy as well as an energy carrier that stores and transports the energy produced from other sources such as water, biomass, and fossil fuels. It is a clean-burning fuel; when oxidized in a fuel cell, it produces heat, electricity, and water vapor as a by-product, without any carbon emissions. Despite these exciting characteristics of hydrogen, there are still a variety of challenges, such as cost-effective hydrogen production and its technological challenges, storage, safety, transportation, and cost issues. This article aims to overview the challenges and opportunities in hydrogen production, storage, and transportation along with some future perspectives on hydrogen.