There are few studies on the management methods of large-scale goaf groups per the specific surrounding rock mass conditions of each goaf. This paper evaluates comprehensively the stability of the multistage large-scale goaf group in a Pb-Zn mine in Inner Mongolia, China, via the modified Mathews stability diagram technique. The volume of each goaf to be backfilled was quantitatively analyzed in the combination of theoretical analysis and three-dimensional laser scanning technology. The corresponding mechanical characteristics of the filling were determined by laboratory testing while formulating the treatment scheme of the large goaf group using the backfill method. The applicability of the treatment scheme using the backfill was verified by the combination of the numerical results of the distribution of the surrounding rock failure zone and the monitored data of the surface subsidence. The research results and treatment scheme using the backfill can provide a reference for similar conditions of mines worldwide.