Microplastic contamination and risk assessment in table salts: Turkey


FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, vol.175, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 175
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fct.2023.113698
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Table salts, Microplastics, Dietary exposure, Polymer risk index, Plastic pollution, Risk assessment, POLYVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE, FTIR SPECTROSCOPY, PLASTIC DEBRIS, VINYL-ACETATE, POLYMERS, POLLUTION, POLYETHYLENE, PYROLYSIS, SPECTRA, IR
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the characterization of microplastics of table salts (n = 36) was determined by FT -IR. Then, individuals' exposure to microplastics from table salt consumption was calculated with a deterministic model, and finally, a risk assessment of table salt was performed using the polymer risk index. On average, 44 +/- 26, 38 +/- 40, 28 +/- 9, and 39 +/- 30 microplastics/kg were detected in rock salts (n = 16), lake salts (n = 12), sea salts (n = 8), and all salts (n = 36). Microplastics with 10 different polymer types (CPE, VC-ANc, HDPE, PET, Nylon-6, PVAc, EVA, PP, PS, Polyester), 7 different colors (black, red, colorless, blue, green, brown, white, gray), and 3 different shapes (fiber, granulated, film) were found in table salts. The daily, annual and lifetime (70-year) exposures to microplastics from table salt consumption in 15+-year-old individuals (general) were calculated to be 0.41 microplastic particles/day, 150 microplastic particles/year and 10,424 microplastic particles/70-year, respectively. The average microplastic polymer risk index of all table salts was calculated as 182 +/- 144 and the risk level is in the medium. In order to minimize microplastic contamination in table salts, protective measures should be taken at the source of the salt, and production processes should be improved.