The world population continues to increase day by day. Therefore, aquaculture needs to grow in order to response the need for protein foods and to cope with the problem of scarcity. However, this enlargement should require taking place in a sustainable way in order to protect the environment and natural resources. The rapid development in the production of seafood as a food sector brought several issues that are necessary to be studied. Particularly, the most important limitations of conventional aquaculture are feed and feeding regimes, high volumes of water requirement, and its pollution potential to natural water resources. Biofloc technology (BFT) is a sustainable aquaculture method for pollution prevention that is based on the principle of reuse of nitrogen-based pollutants which are considered organic waste in aquaculture. In this review, the studies in the literature that considered the parameters affecting BFT are examined. BFT holds a promising response to the global concern of making aquaculture more sustainable. Considering the water quality, fish growth, and immunological positive effects, it is foreseen that BFT systems will be important in aquaculture in the future. Currently, operational parameters are mainly adjusted on a trial-and-error way, and there is a clear need to shift towards a more scientific-based approach to be able to commercialize this technique.