At present, the rapid advances in neurosurgical knowledge and technology are putting increased pressure on neurosurgeons to process huge quantities of information, with requirements for continuous learning and updating knowledge and skills which are time-consuming but essential. All these changes to the venerated status quo of neurosurgical practice have created an environment that may have a negative impact on neurosurgical professional behaviour. As a result, it may be that neurosurgeons find it increasingly difficult to meet their responsibilities to patients. In these circumstances, reaffirming the fundamental and universal principles and values of neurosurgical professionalism, which remain ideals to be pursued by all neurosurgeons, becomes all the more important. This paper summarizes the definition, evolution, and practice of neurosurgical professionalism.