Spatial Analysis of Ottoman Hammams in Erzurum

Kulak Torun F., İsmailoğlu S.

PERIODICA POLYTECHNICA. ARCHITECTURE, vol.53, no.3, pp.232-244, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3311/ppar.20556
  • Journal Indexes: Academic Search Premier, ICONDA Bibliographic, Index Islamicus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.232-244
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Throughout history, water has been one of the defining elements of life in all cultures. In line with the needs of society, public spaces have been designed for their access to water. Baths are also structures built for faith, cleanliness and health. The study examines the spatial organisation in the Ottoman Period baths through examples. Following this, the baths in Erzurum, a winter city, are discussed. Within the scope of the study, 13 baths in the Yakutiye district of Erzurum, which still exists today, were examined through literature and plan drawings. As a result of the evaluations, it was determined that, in some, the function has changed, while others have undergone spatial changes. Only two of Erzurum's hammams have undergone a function change, namely Askeri Hammam and Şeyhler Hammam. Although Gümrük Hammam continues to preserve its function, it is no longer operational. Other hammams, however, still operate in the same way. This study draws attention to the baths that had particular importance for cleanliness, health and rituals during the period. The study area is located in Eastern Anatolia, home to many Ottoman-era baths in Turkey; it is bordered by the city of Erzurum, which has been home to many civilisations. This study contributes to the literature on how the culturally important baths of the Ottoman Period are organised as a place.