Objective: To evaluate the relationship between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Methods: 100 ESRD patients on maintenance HD (mean +/- SD age: 52.3 +/- 1.7 years, 52% were males) were included in this cross-sectional study. Data on patient demographics, dry weight, body mass index, duration of HD (months), etiology of ESRD, delivered dose of dialysis (spKt/V), complete blood count, blood biochemistry and inflammatory markers including hs-CRP (mg/L), TNF-alpha (pg/mL), NLR, and PLR were recorded in all patients and compared in patients with hs-CRP levels of <= 3 mg/L vs. > 3 mg/L. other study parameters were also recorded. Results: Compared to patients with lower hs-CRP levels, patients with hs-CRP levels of > 3 mg/L had significantly higher values for NLR (3.7 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.7 +/- 0.2, p < 0.01) and PLR (150.7 +/- 6.9 vs. 111.8 +/- 7.0, p < 0.001). Both NLR and PLR were positively correlated with hs-CRP (r = 0.333, p = 0.01 and r = 0.262, p = 0.001, respectively) and negatively correlated with transferrin saturation (%) (r = -0.418, p = 0.001 and r = -0.309, p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings in a cohort of ESRD patients on maintenance HD revealed higher values for NLR and PLR in patients with higher levels of inflammation along with a significant positive correlation of both NLR and PLR with hs-CRP levels. Being a simple, relatively inexpensive and universally available method, whether or not calculation of NLR and PLR offers a plausible strategy in the evaluation of inflammation in ESRD patients in the clinical practice should be addressed in larger scale randomized and controlled studies.