Objective It was aimed to investigate the role of the forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) gene in the cause of specific learning disorder (SLD) with the next-generation sequencing method. Material and methods The study included 52 children diagnosed with SLD and 46 children as control between the ages of 6-12 years. Interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifelong Version in Turkish, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-Based Screening and Evaluation Scale for Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Specific Learning Disability Test Battery were applied to all participants. The FOXP2 gene was screened by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) method in all participants. Results A total of 17 variations were detected in the FOXP2 gene in participants. The number and diversity of variations were higher in the patient group. In the patient group, c.1914 + 8A>T heterozygous variation and three different types of heterozygous variation (13insT, 13delT and 4dup) in the c.1770 region were detected. It was found that the detected variations showed significant relationships with the reading phenotypes determined by the test battery. Conclusion It was found that FOXP2 variations were seen more frequently in the patient group. Some of the detected variations might be related to the clinical phenotype of SLD and variations found in previous studies from different countries were not seen in Turkish population. Our study is the first to evaluate the role of FOXP2 gene variations in children with SLD in Turkish population, and novel variations in the related gene were detected.