We studied the influence of dose and timing of atropine therapy on fenthion-induced organ dysfunction. Thirtysix rats were randomized into six groups. All rats in the five groups except the control group were intoxicated with fenthion. The high-dose atropine group received 2 mg/kg of atropine, whereas the low-dose group received 100 mu g/kg of atropine every hour for 24 hr. One group received 2 mg/kg of atropine in the first 4 hr of intoxication while the other group received 2 mg/kg of atropine in the last 4 hr before killed, which for all rats was 24 hr after intoxication. Pseudocholinesterase and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels and histopathological markers of lung, brain and liver were studied. None of our atropine therapy strategies in this study totally prevented harm on the three organs. Although the high dose of atropine administered for 24 hr had the least harmful markers for lung, it also had the most harmful markers for brain and liver. We did not succeed in finding a unique therapy strategy in our models beneficial for all studied organs in fenthion intoxication in rats. Atropine administration strategy should be oriented for the most affected organ pathology in fenthion intoxication.