OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the main causes of mortality in patients undergoing emergency surgery due to an abdominal aortic aneurysm. This study aimed to determine the potential nephroprotective characteristics of dexmedetomidine (DMD) for the establishment of a standard therapeutic method for AKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty Spraque Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: control, sham, ischemia-reperfusion, and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)+dexmedatomidine. RESULTS: Necrotic tubules, degenerative Bowman’s capsule and vascular congestion were observed in the I/R group. In addition, there was an increase in tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 levels in tubular epithelial cells. In contrast, we observed decreased tubular necrosis, IL-1, IL-6 and MDA levels in the DMD treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: DMD has a nephroprotective effect against acute kidney injury resulting from I/R, which is related to aortic occlusion used in the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.