In this study, the karyotypes of 13 taxa of the tribe Lactuceae growing naturally in Turkey were examined. Of the species of the genus Scorzonera L. (Asteraceae), S. laciniata L. subsp. laciniata, S. cana (C.A.Mey.) Hoffm. var. jacquiniana (W.Koch) Chamb., S. suberosa C.Koch subsp. suberosa, S. moths M.Bieb. subsp. mollis, S. papposa DC., S. lacera Boiss. & Bal., S. elata Boiss., and S. parviflora Jacq. have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 14. For S. phaeopappa (Boiss.) Boiss., this number is 2n = 28, and for S. eriophora DC., S. pseudolanata Grossh., S. tomentosa L., and S. kotschyi Boiss., it is 2n = 12. The average chromosome length of the taxa examined was between 1.20 and 7.63 mu m. All of the taxa have median and submedian chromosome pairs in their chromosome morphologies. With the exception of S. parviflora, the chromosome morphologies of the taxa examined are presented here for the first time.