The aim of this article is to identify the urban biodiversity in the residential landscapes and user preferences in Bartin urban area, located in the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey. The study was conducted in the residential gardens of the traditional urban fabric and the old urban pattern with conservation status at the national level (dwellings in the urban conservation area and registered buildings in the urban development area), and also in the new urban pattern (housing estates and detached houses). 120 residential gardens were selected and 140 plant species belonging to 57 families were identified. The plant species in the first 10 percent of 140 plants according to user preferences are considered in the statistical analyses. The results of the study indicate that the residential landscapes in the old and new urban pattern of Bartin have a considerable potential in terms of biodiversity. While fruit trees and natural plant species characterize the residential gardens in the old urban pattern, exotic plant species are common in the new urban pattern. The users prefer plants in their gardens for their functional use, rather than aesthetical use. It is further observed that the users in the old urban pattern use the plants as they grow, whereas the users in the new urban pattern use plants obtained from nursery gardens. Analyzing the urban biodiversity inventory in Bartin at the residential garden scale, this study concludes with some suggestions for sustainable urban development.