The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of extraction methods on yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Vicia dadianorum Somm. & Lev. The volatiles of V. dadianorum have been isolated by hydro and microwave distillations (HD and MD). The compositions of the essential oils were characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of seventy-six and fifty-six compounds were identified, constituting over 90.9%, and 80.1% of oil composition of V. dadianorum, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of volatiles (HD: 26.2% and MD: 15.9%). The major terpene constituent of the essential oils of V. dadianorum was gamma-elemene (HD, 13.7% and MD, 8.4%). Comparative study showed that the amount of total volatiles (90.9%) and the major constituent (26.2%) were found to be better in HD of V. dadianorum. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils of the plant was also investigated, and it showed moderate antimicrobial and antifungal activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans.