in: Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials for Bioenergy Applications, Neha Srivastava,Manish Srivastava,P. K. Mishra,Vijai Kumar Gupta, Editor, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK , New Jersey, pp.165-190, 2020
Enzymes are natural and highly active biological molecules that increase the speed of catalytic reactions. They are used in various biotechnological and industrial areas due to their characteristics such as activity at diverse pHs and temperatures, easy production, high substrate specificity and selectivity, green chemistry, reusability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, etc.
But the use of free enzymes can cause the activity to be lost during the industrial processes and decrease the product efficiency. The enzyme immobilization methods (conventional or new generation techniques) can prevent the loss of catalytic activity and product. Enzyme immobilization is a significant way for the entrapment of free or soluble enzymes to a solid insoluble matrix other than a substrate or product to create insoluble, reusable enzymes with high activity and stability.
In this chapter, general information about enzymes, industrial application fields, enzyme demand in industrial sectors, the importance of enzyme immobilization, different immobilization methods, and the new generation hybrid nanoflowers (HNFs) are explained.