Assessment of Aluminum via Baby Foods Consumption in Turkey: Estimated Early-Life Dietary Exposure and Target Hazard Quotient


BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH, vol.200, no.8, pp.3892-3901, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 200 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12011-021-02961-2
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.3892-3901
  • Keywords: Infant formula, Baby biscuit, ICP-MS, Aluminum, Dietary exposure, THQ, INFANTS, METALS, HEALTH, LAND
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


This study focuses on infant formulas and baby biscuits, which have an important place in the nutrition of the most vulnerable individuals, namely babies. In this sense, the aluminum levels of 64 different baby foods, retrospectively consumed by 348 babies for dietary recall 24 h, were determined by ICP-MS. Then, the exposure resulting from the consumption of these foods was calculated via a deterministic model, and a risk assessment was made. Aluminum levels of infant formulas and baby biscuits that are of higher values compared to other studies were found in the range of 718-6987 and 1803-15,479 mu g/kg, respectively. Aluminum exposure was calculated as 8.02, 7.28, 4.03, and 4.08 mu g/kg bw/day in babies aged 0-6, 7-12, 13-24, and 25-36 months, respectively. There is no statistically significant difference between different age groups according to the total aluminum exposure levels. The toxicological contribution of aluminum exposure is quite limited (< 6.0% of PTWI). THQ values were calculated as 10-20 for babies aged 0-36 months. Therefore, THQ values indicate a potential health problem.