Comparison and risk assessment of nitrate and nitrite levels in infant formula and biscuits for small children in Turkey


BAŞARAN B. , Oral Z. F. Y. , ANLAR P., KABAN G.

JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS, vol.109, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 109
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jfca.2022.104522
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS
  • Keywords: Infant formula, Baby biscuits, Nitrate, Nitrite, Dietary exposure, Hazard index, COMMERCIAL BABY FOODS, EXPOSURE, VEGETABLES, METABOLISM, ELEMENTS, MILK

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the nitrate/nitrite levels in infant formulas and baby biscuits sold in Turkey and to make a non-carcinogenic risk assessment of exposure stemming from these foods. Within the scope of the study, nitrate and nitrite levels in 36 infant formulas and 30 baby biscuits were determined by HPLC. The nitrate and nitrite exposure from consumption of infant formulas and baby biscuits of 368 children aged 0-36 months who consumed these foods in the retrospective 24 h period was calculated according to the deterministic model. While the mean nitrate and nitrite levels in infant formulas ranged from 0.82 to 25.4 and from 1.11 to 5.96 mg/kg, respectively, those levels in baby biscuits varied from 0.36 to 4.16 and from 0.27 to 4.28 mg/kg, respectively. The mean nitrate and nitrite levels of exposure from consumption of infant formulas and baby biscuits were determined as 0.03 and 0.03 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Nitrate exposure from consumption of infant formulas and baby biscuits was below the acceptable daily intake level. However, nitrite exposure from consumption of infant formulas and baby biscuits in some age groups carries potential risks. The hazard index caused by both contaminants was lower than 1, and there were no negative findings in terms of health. The mean nitrate and nitrite levels of infant formulas were found statistically significantly higher than baby biscuits (p < 0.05). Total nitrate and nitrite exposures resulting from baby foods and hazard index values of children aged 0-6 months were found statistically significantly higher than those of children aged 7-12, 13-24, and 25-36 months (p < 0.05). The hazard index was calculated, for the first time, for nitrate/nitrite exposures from infant formulas and baby biscuits. The results are considered to be a good resource for risk assessment studies.