ENERGIES, vol.15, no.3, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
The storage of enormous energies is a significant challenge for electrical generation. Researchers have studied energy storage methods and increased efficiency for many years. In recent years, researchers have been exploring new materials and techniques to store more significant amounts of energy more efficiently. In particular, renewable energy sources and electric vehicle technologies are triggering these scientific studies. Scientists and manufacturers recently proposed the supercapacitor (SC) as an alternating or hybrid storage device. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of SC applications and their developments. Accordingly, a detailed literature review was first carried out. The historical results of SCs are revealed in this paper. The structure, working principle, and materials of SC are given in detail to be analysed more effectively. The advantages and disadvantages, market profile, and new technologies with manufacturer corporations are investigated to produce a techno-economic analysis of SCs. The electric vehicle, power systems, hybrid energy storage systems with integration of renewable energy sources, and other applications of SCs are investigated in this paper. Additionally, SC modelling design principles with charge and discharge tests are explored. Other components and their price to produce a compact module for high power density are also investigated.