The diet of the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus was studied in the southeast Black Sea region of Turkey during the autumn, winter and spring seasons. Examination of the stomach contents of 526 specimens (total length ranging from 6.9-13.8 cm) confirmed that E. encrasicolus is a zooplanktivorous fish species. Among the 38 identified prey items, 71% were classified as zooplankton. The predominant prey groups of the zooplankton were fish eggs and larvae, and Ctenophorans followed by copepods. Data analysis revealed significant differences in the prey species composition between different seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.229, p < 0.001) and between fish length classes (ANOSIM, R = 0.073, p < 0.001). The prey species that constituted the majority of the diet changed significantly with the season. SIMPER analysis revealed that the prey item contributing the most to the differences between seasons and length classes was fish eggs. The results of this study could be used to describe the diversity of prey species and intraspecific food competition in the Black Sea.